Seat of Marshall County, Madill is situated at the junction of U.S. Highway 70, U.S. Highway 177/State Highway 199, and U.S. Highway 377/State Highway 99, twenty-five miles southeast of Ardmore and some seventeen miles north of the Red River. Marshall County is in south-central Oklahoma and borders the Red and Washita rivers. The area formerly lay within Pickens County of the Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory. William N. Taliaferro, Madill’s founder, came from Texas into Pickens County in 1886. He cultivated a six-hundred-acre farm and operated extensive ranches near Oakland.
In 1900 Taliaferro’s lands became the Madill townsite. Madill was located along the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway (Frisco) and was named for a Frisco official, Judge George A. Madill of St. Louis, Missouri. Until then, Oakland, located two miles northwest of Madill, had been the area’s main town. The railroad assured Madill’s growth and Oakland’s decline. The Madill post office was established on April 29, 1901, and the city charter was issued on September 12, 1902.